3. CLASSIFICATION OF S&T PROGRAMS/PROJECTS FUNDED

3.1 GENERATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGIES

An important source of new knowledge and technologies is research and development (R&D). Research and development is defined as comprising creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications through the conduct of the following activities:

3.1.1 Fundamental/Basic Research--refers to experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge on underlying phenomena and observable facts. This can either be (a) without immediate or specific application (fundamental research) or (b) geared to come up with basic information toward the solution of a specific problem that has not been solved before (oriented basic research). This category includes natural and social sciences among other areas.

3.1.2 Applied Research--refers to investigation undertaken in order to utilize data/information gathered from fundamental/basic researches or to acquire new knowledge directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective with direct benefit to society.

3.1.3 Experimental Development--refers to systematic work that draws from existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience that is directed to produce new materials, products and devices, install new processes, systems and services, and substantially improve those already produced or installed.

3.1.4 Pilot Testing--refers to innovative scaled-up (greater than laboratory or bench scale) activity aimed at gaining experience that may lead to further technical improvement of product or production process, and setting the parameters before the commercialization of the process/product and design of equipment.

3.2 DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGIES

Technology diffusion is defined as the widespread adoption of technologies by users other than the original innovators. Technology diffusion is recognized world-wide as necessary for generating economy-wide benefits from innovation in terms of productivity gains and job creation. Knowledge and technologies are diffused through various channels and involve a broad range of private and public institutions that, taken as a whole, make up the national innovation system through the following:

3.2.1 Technology Transfer--are those activities that are basically designed to support, promote, facilitate or fast-track the transfer of technologies developed by DOST institutions and/or by DOST-funded/assisted R&D programs.

3.2.2 Technology Receptor Capacity Building--are those activities that are essentially designed to enhance the capacity of firms, particularly the SMEs, to identify their specific technology needs, to solve their technical problems and overcome their obstacles to the successful adoption and use of technologies arising from deficiencies in labor, management and organizational change. These include the provision of consultancy services and of access to information on technology sources.

3.2.3 Innovation Capacity-Building--are those activities that are designed to promote greater awareness of the value of innovation among firm managers and owners particularly of SMEs, and stimulate demand for technological and organizational change within firms, essentially through greater collaboration, partnerships, clustering and networking among firms and with knowledge providers. These include collaborative and systematic planning for future strategic technology investments for a particular sector/cluster as well as the sharing of diagnostic tools, best practices, and knowledge among firms and academic/government institutions.

This category includes but is not limited to the following activities:

a. Technology needs assessment and technology sourcing--assistance shall be provided to participating firms in the assessment of technology needs, mapping, and identification of appropriate technologies to identify business opportunities and requirements of investors, entrepreneurs, aspiring entrepreneurs, and industries in accelerating technology commercialization.

b. Enterprise Development--establishment and strengthening of technology-based business through the provision of technology, equipment, and training.

c. Consultancy and Technical Advisory Services--activities that would ensure successful adoption of technologies through DOST’s pool of experts drawn from its various agencies and members of the R&D network including academic institutions and private firms/industries.

d. Technology Matching Service--these are activities that will ensure promotion and utilization of technology through linkages between technology generators and technology adopters/users.

e. Preparation of technology commercialization plan, acquisition of equipment and provision of technology systems to encourage and enable the private sector to carry out technological innovation and related activities/services.

3.3 DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR THE S&T SECTOR

The development of human resources for the S&T sector involves a wide range of interventions from the provision of high-quality formal education at all levels, elementary to university level, to specialized training, with a focus on young scientists and engineers, and the development, attraction and retention of the country’s S&T talents.

These include specialized science secondary school program, undergraduate scholarship programs, teacher upgrading programs, graduate scholarship programs, program for tapping overseas Filipino S&T expertise, awards and recognition programs and other human resource development programs. These also cover other initiatives aimed at enhancing the public’s S&T awareness such as:

3.3.1 International, national, and local S&T workshops/seminars/meetings/ symposia/conferences

3.3.2 International, national, and local S&T competitions/quizzes/Olympiads

3.4 PROVISION OF QUALITY S&T SERVICES

The DOST provides other services that strengthen the S&T infrastructure to develop and upgrade national, regional, and local S&T capacities of institutions and centers of excellence. These include:

3.4.1 Improving/upgrading the testing, measurement and calibration services of government laboratories and facilities;

3.4.2 Development of information resources/databases and general purpose data collection to record natural, biological or social phenomena that are of general public interest;

3.4.3 Testing and calibration services of R&D institutes and other DOST regional offices;

3.4.4 S&T regulatory and licensing work like PNRI’s nuclear regulation and licensing policy related such as those made by the DOST Central Office;

3.4.5 Publications/bookwriting on S&T including subsidy/grant to science and technology journals;

3.4.6 S&T policy development including secretariat services and management support to S&T programs and projects; and

3.4.7 Other S&T linkages development/promotion activities (to include, among others, organization and strengthening of S&T networks, and bilateral agreements, S&T programs for women and tri-media).